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What is a stepper motor?

time:2019-06-11 Browse:

  What is a stepper motor?


  The stator winding produces a vector magnetic field as current flows through the stator windings. The magnetic field causes the rotor to rotate at an angle such that the pair of magnetic fields in the rotor coincide with the direction of the magnetic field of the stator. When the stator's vector magnetic field is rotated by an angle. The rotor also turns an angle with the magnetic field. Each time an electrical pulse is input, the motor rotates an angle further. The angular displacement of the output is proportional to the number of pulses input, and the rotational speed is proportional to the pulse frequency. Changing the order in which the windings are energized, the motor will reverse. Therefore, the number of control pulses, the frequency, and the energization sequence of the windings of each phase of the motor can be used to control the rotation of the stepping motor.

  

步进电机结构图
Structural diagram of stepper motor
 

  The various types of motors commonly seen have iron cores and winding coils inside. The winding has resistance, and the power will generate loss. The loss is proportional to the square of the resistance and current. This is the copper loss we often say. If the current is not a standard DC or sine wave, harmonic loss will occur. The core has hysteresis. The eddy current effect, also in the alternating magnetic field, is also related to the material, current, frequency, and voltage. This is called iron loss.

  Both copper loss and iron loss are manifested in the form of heat, which affects the efficiency of the motor. Stepper motors generally pursue positioning accuracy and torque output, low efficiency, relatively large current, high harmonic content, and alternating current frequency with speed. The AC motor is serious.

  Main structure: Stepper motor, also called stepper, uses electromagnetic principle to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. People used this motor as early as the 1920s. With the increasing popularity of embedded systems (such as printers, disk drives, toys, wipers, vibrating pagers, robotic arms, and video recorders), the use of stepper motors has also exploded. Whether in the industrial, military, medical, automotive or entertainment industries, stepper motors can come in handy as long as an object needs to be moved from one location to another. Stepper motors come in many shapes and sizes, but regardless of shape and size, they can be classified into two categories: variable reluctance stepper motors and permanent magnet stepper motors.

  The stepper motor is driven by a set of coils wound around the fixed part of the motor, the stator slot. Usually, a wire wound in a loop is called a solenoid, and in a motor, a wire wound around a tooth is called a winding, a coil, or a phase.

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